New Study Brings Insight into Parental Choices in Early Education

Over the past several decades, the number of young children enrolled in formal, center-based early childhood education, which can include Head Start, state-funded pre-K, and private child care programs, has grown dramatically. For example, while only 23 percent of four-year-olds were enrolled in formal early learning programs in 1968, that number increased to 65 percent in 2000 and 70 percent in 2012. State-funded pre-K programs now exist in 43 states and serve 1.5 million children, an all-time high, including 32 percent of the nation’s four-year-olds.

Growth in this sector has led to a heightened urgency in understanding why parents choose certain education settings over others for their children. Already, there have been a large number of studies examining which families choose to enroll their children in center-based early learning programs as opposed to home-based settings. However, there is a surprising lack of research available about how parents make decisions about choosing among options within the formal sector of Head Start, state-funded pre-K, and private child care programs.

It’s important to understand how and why parents choose one type of center-based care over others because the type of program chosen can have an impact on overall child and family well-being. For example, Head Start and state-funded pre-K programs have generally been shown to be of higher quality than private child care centers, likely because these programs face more stringent regulations than private centers. However, there are benefits to private centers that often lead families to choose them, such as the fact that they generally offer longer, more flexible hours that are attractive to working parents. As states increasingly look to help parents navigate the wide variety of early education choices available to them, it’s important to gain a better understanding of what parents look for in a provider and how they go about searching for an ideal fit for their needs.

In a new study, researchers from the University of Virginia attempt to fill the research gap about how low-income parents make choices within the formal early education sector. The researchers selected 80 early education programs that primarily served four-year-olds across five Louisiana parishes (counties) during the 2014-2015 school year. Researchers included programs to participate if they received some public funding, meaning Head Start, state pre-K, and private child care centers that received subsidies were included. Within each program, one classroom was randomly selected and parents of enrolled students were asked to respond to surveys about various aspects of their search for an early learning program. In all, about 1,300 low-income parents completed the survey.

Overall, the survey responses suggest that parents had similar views about what aspects of a program are most important, regardless of which setting their child was in, but they reported vastly different experiences about the search for a program itself.

Parents across all three types of settings agreed that the following features are the most important when selecting an early education program: that the program builds academic skills, offers a clean and safe environment, and provides teachers who respond warmly to children. Parents weighed these features as more important than more practical considerations, such as the convenience of the program’s hours and even its affordability.

But it’s in the search process itself where the researchers observed meaningful differences by setting. For example, parents seeking private child care were over three times as likely to use ads or the internet to aid them in their search compared to Head Start and state pre-K parents. Perhaps most importantly, child care parents searched more, considered more alternatives, and found the search process more difficult than other parents. Child care parents were also less likely to report that they enrolled in their top choice compared to other parents surveyed.

Why is the search process more difficult for parents who choose private child care? The survey didn’t allow the researchers to answer this question, but they do offer a few possible explanations. It could be that child care parents had more limited options as a result of having income that was slightly too high to qualify for Head Start or state pre-K. It’s also possible that child care parents were eligible and did apply for Head Start or state pre-K, but were turned away due to limited supply and had to continue in their search.

The report acknowledges that more research is needed to better understand why families in child care settings found their search more challenging, but the researchers say that one place policymakers could look to for lessening the burden for parents is a state’s Quality Rating and Improvement System. The researchers suggest that refined QRIS’s that offer parents streamlined, easy-to-understand information about early education programs in their area are likely to facilitate better and easier decision-making on the part of parents. For example, Louisiana recently unveiled an online tool that provides parents with performance profiles for early education programs.

The fact that child care parents found the search process difficult and were less likely to enroll in their top choice is significant. Due to the substantial increase in funding for CCDBG included in the recent budget agreement, the Center for Law and Social Policy estimates over 150,000 additional children will receive child care subsidies to be used at child care centers. While this expansion of access to care and education is welcome news, it also means a large increase in the number of parents engaged in the search for a quality program. Understanding parents’ motivations and frustrations can help programs and policymakers provide information necessary to ease the burdens on parents searching for a quality early education program.

Source: New America

Available at: https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/new-study-brings-insight-parental-choices-early-education/

National Children’s Mental Health Awareness Day

 

Thursday, May 10, 2018

National Children’s Mental Health Awareness Day is Thursday, May 10, 2018! This annual event raises awareness about the importance of children’s mental health and its impact on their healthy development.

Mental Health and Head Start

Early childhood mental health is a child’s growing capacity to experience, regulate, and express emotions. For children birth to 5 years of age, early childhood mental health is the same as social and emotional development. Head Start and Early Head Start have a long-standing partnership with mental health consultants and community professionals to promote the well-being of children, families, and staff in the program.

Awareness Day 2018

The national theme for Awareness Day 2018 is Partnering for Health and Hope Following Trauma. It will focus on the importance of an integrated approach to caring for the mental health needs of children and families who have experienced trauma. The Office of Head Start and the Office of Child Care will highlight best practices that support resilience for this year’s Children’s Mental Health Awareness Day. Look for more details about opportunities to participate in the coming weeks.

More than 1,100 communities and 160 national collaborating organizations and federal programs will organize local Awareness Day activities and events around the country. Learn more about Awareness Day 2018 and how you and your community can get involved at https://www.samhsa.gov/children/awareness-day/2018.

Interested in planning an awareness day event at your program? Read about activities that communities across the country held for National Children’s Mental Health Awareness Day 2017 at https://www.samhsa.gov/children/awareness-day/2017/activities.

The National Research Conference on Early Childhood

Title: NRCEC 2018 Document Header. - Description: NRCEC 2018.

The Administration for Children and Families presents the National Research Conference on Early Childhood.

June 25-27, 2018. Crystal Gateway Marriott. Arlington, VA.Registration is open!

We are pleased to invite you to attend the Administration for Children and Families’ 2018 National Research Conference on Early Childhood (NRCEC 2018). The conference will be held June 25–27, 2018, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, VA.

This conference, presented by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation in conjunction with the Office of Head Start, is the leading venue for research on the development, education, and care of young children and their families and the policy and practice implications of their findings.

Please visit http://nrcec.net/ to register to attend the conference or for more information about the event. There is no cost to attend the conference, although all participants should register in advance through the conference website.

Please download, print, and share the registration flyer with colleagues!

 For hotel reservations, please contact the Crystal Gateway Marriott at (888) 421-1442 and provide the reservation attendant with the group name “NRCEC18” to receive the discounted room rate. Additionally, reservations can be made through the online reservation system. The group code for the discounted conference room rate will automatically be applied when you make your reservation on line. To receive this discounted rate, attendees must make reservations with the hotel by Wednesday, June 1, 2018. After this date, reservations will be accepted on a space-available basis and may be at a significantly higher rate.

 If you have any questions about the conference, please contact us at nrcec@impaqint.com.

 We look forward to seeing you in June!

The NRCEC 2018 Logistics Team
Office of Child Care
Administration for Children and Families
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Mary E. Switzer Building, Fourth Floor, MS 4425
330 C Street, S.W.
Washington, DC  20201
General office number: (202) 690-6782
Fax: (202) 690-5600
General email: occ@acf.hhs.gov
Website: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/occ

Child Care Aware® of America Symposium and Gala Celebrating Passion and Persistence. Igniting Possibilities

April 17-20, 2018

Marriott Marquis

Washington, DC

Child Care Aware® of America 30th Anniversary

Child Care Aware® of America is celebrating 30 years in the child care community at the Child Care Aware® of America Symposium 2018. The Symposium is the biennial event that brings together individuals from across the country come together to discuss the hottest topics of research, policy, and practices of interest to the early child care and education community.

This year has been extremely special as Child Care Aware® of America celebrated 30 years of growth and accomplishments. We are honored to have you help celebrate the closeout of Child Care Aware® of America’s 30th Anniversary.


Speakers/Program

We’re excited to announce that the digital version of the 2018 Symposium program is now available for download on the Child Care Aware® of America website. Download the PDF to browse the agenda and explore the sessions and speakers most relevant to your work.

 

Learn more about plenary topics that were covered during the 2016 Symposium here.


Who Should Attend?

The Symposium is the biennial event that brings together child care experts, Child Care Resource and Referral leaders and staff, child care providers, researchers, policymakers, parents, students, and anyone interested from across the country come together to discuss the hottest topics of research, policy, and practices of interest to the early child care and education community.


Why Should You Attend?

  1. Hear from Outstanding Experts in the Community
  2. Find Solutions
  3. Share Ideas and Learn From Others
  4. Put Faces to Names
  5. …and more!

Registration

Register Early and Save! Get the best rates when you register early. Bring your family, staff or become a Child Care Aware of America member and save even more.

Registration Rates Regular Rate On-Site
1/23/18 – 4/8/18 After 4/8/18
Member $529 $579
Non Member $599 $649

 

Register Now

Submit Your Proposal to Provide Technical Assistance in Building Healthy Child Care & Communities

With the support of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), Child Care Aware® of America (CCAoA) is pleased to offer technical assistance (TA) to states on projects that support development or maintenance of quality child care settings that promote child health.CCAoA will select up to six (6) organizations to participate in this nine-month project, based on the strength of their applications. Please submit your proposals by 5 p.m. EST on Wednesday, February 28, 2018. 

During the Healthy Child Care, Healthy Communitiesproject period, the selected organization will determine which element of healthy child care will be its priority and will develop and implement a TA plan to achieve a goal articulated in this application. This goal must be a SMART goal—a goal that is Specific, Measurable, Assignable, Realistic and Time bound. We are interested in supporting statewide, regional, or local organizations with these initiatives through intensive TA that supports systemic changes to state or local policies or practices through one or a combination of the following levers for change:

  • Policy Development and Analysis
  • Advocacy
  • Research and Community-Informed Practices
  • Family and Community Engagement
  • Workforce Capacity Building Activities

Elements of a successful application include:

  • Participation in or building of a broad-based coalition focused on addressing health in child care settings.
  • Expressed interest in using data and data visualization to answer a research question or to solve a problem related to healthy child care settings.
  • A description of the types of support activities offered by CCAoA that it plans to use to support the equity-rooted policy and practice levers selected.
  • Preference will be given to applicants who are willing to enter into data partnership agreements with CCAoA,
  • Total number of points that may be obtained through evaluation criteria is equal to 100 points. Maximum point values for each question are listed.

Get further information about this opportunity here. Questions about the process or the submission may be addressed to Krista Scott, Senior Director of Child Care Health Policy at Child Care Aware® of America (CCAoA).

View the Proposal

Submit Your Proposal
(Which includes goals, requirements, scope of work and criteria)

 Deadline: February 28, 2018

Project Duration: March 15, 2018 to December 14, 2018

Office of Head Start Upcoming Events

Explore and register for upcoming T/TA events, sorted by topic. Scroll down for General Interest; Education & Child Development; Family & Community Engagement; Financial & Program Management; Health & Social and Emotional Well-being; Partnerships in Education & Child Care; and Non-ACF Events in the Early Childhood Field.

To see events sorted by date, visit the Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center (ECLKC).

 

General Interest

Monday, March 12
4–4:45 p.m. ET
Online

MyPeers Orientation

Join this webinar for a 45-minute introduction to MyPeers, a community of practice forum for Head Start programs, staff, and partners. MyPeers is a virtual space for brainstorming, exchanging ideas, and sharing resources. Local program staff across the country can connect with and lend support to fellow early childhood colleagues.

Webinar Repeats (all ET): March 19 at 1 p.m.; April 12 at 2 p.m.; April 23 at 3 p.m.; May 8 at noon.; May 16 at 2 p.m.

Education & Child Development

Wednesday, March 7
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

Spotlights on Innovative Practices: Relationship-Based Competencies for Professionals Who Work with Young Children

This is a live repeat of the December webinar which introduced the updated resource Relationship-Based Competencies for Professionals Who Work with Young Children in Group Settings.

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Tuesday, March 13
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

BabyTalks Series: Supporting Children’s Early Brain Development

For very young children, almost every experience is an opportunity for learning. Explore how children’s brains develop in the first few years of life.

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Friday, March 16
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

Preschool Cognition: Supporting Early Math

Join this Teacher Time webisode to hear from experts about early math development. Learn how to integrate early geometry concepts and skills, like shapes and puzzles, into everyday teaching practices.

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Tuesday, March 20
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

New and Revised: Making It Work – Implementing Cultural Learning Experiences in AIAN Early Learning Settings

Discover the importance of infusing language and culture in early learning programs. Hear about the newly updated Making It Work, a guide for implementing cultural learning experiences in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) programs.

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Family & Community Engagement

Thursday, March 29
3–4:15 p.m. ET
Online

Helping Families Prepare for Income Changes Throughout the Year

Nearly two-thirds of low-income families go through significant changes in household income during the year. Head Start and Early Head Start programs can play a key role in helping families develop a plan to handle sudden income changes. This webinar is part of the Building Foundations for Economic Mobility (BFEM) webinar series.

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Financial & Program Management

Thursday, March 8
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

Program Planning and Data & Evaluation

This session will give an overview of the Program Planning and Data and Evaluation sections of the Head Start Management Systems Wheel. Topics will include coordinated approaches and how data supports continuous improvement.

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Wednesday, March 28
3–4:30 p.m. ET
Online

Successful, Supportive Relationships with State Early Childhood Systems

Explore both grantee and state perspectives on building relationships that support access to the Child Care and Development Fund subsidy. Hear from state representatives and two Early Head Start-Child Care Partnership grantees, one rural and one urban, about the benefits of these relationships and what steps they took in building them. This webinar is part of the “Making Strides” series.

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Thursday, April 12
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

Facilities and Learning Environments

This session continues the exploration of the Head Start Management Systems Wheel. Review key considerations in facilities management. This includes an overview of the facility development and renovation cycle, as well as the health and wellness implications in facility management.

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Thursday, May 10
3–4 p.m. ET
Online

Transportation and Technology

This Head Start Management Systems Wheel session will address the fundamental concepts that support the systems of Transportation and Technology and Information Systems. This will include transportation planning, ensuring child safety, and the role of internal staff and external consultants in supporting your computers and software.

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Health & Social and Emotional Well-being

Monday, March 5
2–3 p.m. ET
Online

Tummy Time: A Simple Concept with Enormous Benefits

Tummy time gives babies a chance to stretch and strengthen their muscles, which helps them push up, roll over, crawl, and walk. Join this webinar to explore a new suite of materials for home visitors and other professionals working with families with infants. Learn to encourage and incorporate tummy time into families’ routines. Help caregivers use tummy time as a special chance to bond and interact with babies.

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Tuesday, March 6
1–2 p.m. ET
Online

Implementing Evidence-Based Hearing Screening Practices for Children 3 to 5 Years of Age in Head Start Programs

Learn about evidence-based hearing screening for children 3–5 years of age. Explore newly released instructional resources designed to assist those using Pure Tone screening.

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Thursday, March 15
2–3 p.m. ET
Online

Nutrition Education in the Classroom

Nutrition is key for children’s healthy development, but it can be challenging to make it a part of your daily routine. Explore tips and strategies to create healthier eating environments for children in the classroom and at home.

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April 10–12
All Day
Dallas, TX

I Am Moving, I Am Learning Team Trainings

I Am Moving, I Am Learning (IMIL) is a Head Start program enhancement created to address childhood obesity. It was not designed as a curriculum or an add-on. Join the team training to find out how IMIL fits seamlessly into what programs are already doing to meet the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework. Apply online by March 9, 2018.

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Partnerships in Education & Child Care

Tuesday, March 6
2–3:30 p.m. ET
Online

Strategies for Building and Financing the Supply of High Quality Early Learning Webinar Series: State and Local Finance Strategies

The National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance, in collaboration with the BUILD initiative, will facilitate a discussion about state and local revenue-generation strategies that fund quality services for children.

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Tuesday, May 1
2–3:30 p.m. ET
Online

Strategies for Building and Financing the Supply of High Quality Early Learning: Utilizing Grants and Contracts, Payment Rates, and Financial Incentives to Increase Supply and Improve Quality

Hear from states that have used different strategies related to provider payments, grants and contracts, and financial incentives.

May 30 – June 1
All Day
Washington, DC

Research and Evaluation Conference on Self-Sufficiency (RECS)

Explore the latest findings from evaluations or programs, policies, and services that support low-income and vulnerable families on the path to economic self-sufficiency. RECS is presented by the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Non-ACF Events in the Early Childhood Field

April 4–6
All Day
Online

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April 23–27
All Day
Anaheim, CA

Fewer Children, Fewer Providers: Trends in CCDBG Participation

January 2017

The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the major federal funding stream for states to help low-income families afford child care and increase the quality of child care for all. CCDBG gives states flexibility in setting many child care policies within federal parameters. Over the past decade, the CCDBG program has been shrinking due to insufficient federal and state investments. States also have discretion to use funds from the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant/program to support child care for low-income families. In 2014, the latest year data are available, combined TANF and CCDBG spending on child care fell to $11.3 billion, the lowest level since 2002.1 As a result, fewer children are getting help. Most recently, in 2015, fewer than 1.4 million children received CCDBG-funded child care in an average month, the smallest number of children served in the program since 1998. From 2006 to 2015, over 373,000 children have lost assistance—a decline of 21 percent.2 Within this context of declining investments and shrinking access, this factsheet explores trends among the child care providers receiving CCDBG funds and implications for the families served by this program.

Source: CLASP

Available at: http://www.clasp.org/resources-and-publications/publication-1/CCDBG-Provider-Factsheet-2006-2015.pdf 

Eligibility and Access in the CCDF Program

FROM THE OFFICE OF CHILD CARE

1/11/17

Dear Colleague:

As we begin a new year, it’s natural to take stock of our priorities as we move forward. Fortunately, the recognition of the importance of child care to child development and family economic stability continues to grow.

The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act was updated and reauthorized with bipartisan support by Congress in 2014 to better meet these dual goals. A report issued last month provides information on the reach of the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program, the Nation’s largest funding source for child care assistance to help parents who are working or in education/training to pay for child care and to improve the quality of care for all children. States, Territories, and Tribes use CCDF funds to serve their unique populations and to have some flexibility in setting specific policies that govern the everyday experiences of over 1 million children, their families, and the early childhood workforce that nurtures them, and our collective future, each day.

The CCDBG Act of 2014 required the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to examine the extent of participation in the CCDF program across States. The resulting report, Access to Subsidies and Strategies to Manage Demand Vary Across States, found that approximately 14.2 million children under age 13 were in families estimated to be eligible for CCDF subsidies in an average month. These figures are based on the Federal limit on eligibility, which allows States, Territories, and Tribes to set maximum income eligibility no higher than 85% of State Median Income (SMI) and which requires families to qualify based on their participation in work or education/training. According to the Census Bureau, nationally, 85% of SMI translates to a family income of roughly $45,000 per year.Statesmay set the threshold lower and add other eligibility criteria. The GAO found the total number eligible when these criteria are applied is 8.6 million. Of those, GAO found that 1.5 million children in eligible families received child care subsidies in the years for which the data were reviewed (2011 and 2012). That number translates into just 11% of federally eligible children receiving CCDF subsidies. Please view the chart on page 10 of the report for a graphic illustrating these results.

Before, we typically used the figure of 15% of children federally eligible for CCDF who could access the program, based on an analysis published by the Assistant Secretary of Planning and Evaluation in 2015. Now, GAO’s calculations show just 11% benefit from access to this important support that helps families choose child care so that they can work or attend school. This current situation is a lost opportunity to strengthen American families and children’s prospects for their future.

Over three-quarters (77%) of children receiving a subsidy lived in families with income under 150% of the Federal poverty level, with 60% below poverty. Poverty wages meant earnings less than $23,000 for a family of four in 2012, the most recent year of data that GAO analyzed. The average price of child care for an infant care in a center is over $10,000 a year, although it varies depending on the cost of living in different areas.

When more families ask for a subsidy than a State can serve, it leads to difficult choices. GAO asked 32 States questions about how they manage the demand for child care subsidies. States mentioned using wait lists, prioritization criteria, and closing intake.

With the birth of a new year, like the birth of a child, comes new potential and promise. Thank you to all who will be a part of realizing that potential and promise for children, families, and the early childhood workforce in 2017.

Sincerely,

Rachel Schumacher

A National Challenge – Supporting the Development of Young Children Who are Affected by Maternal Substance Abuse

12/20/2016

By Linda K. Smith, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Early Childhood Development

This week, we are releasing a Policy Statement: “Supporting the Development of Young Children in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities Who are Affected by Alcohol and Substance Exposure”.   The policy is the result of over a year and a half conversation and intense look into what we know – and don’t know – about the babies born to mothers who use alcohol or drugs during pregnancy.  The policy statement grew out of a visit by our Secretary to two Native American communities in 2015 and a request for help in supporting these babies who are enrolled in our Early Head Start and Child Care programs.  And, although the policy responds to the issue in our AIAN communities, it easily could apply to any state and many communities across America.  Many of our communities are experiencing marked increases in the use of opioids and a commensurate increase in the cases of babies experiencing Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS).

Of 28 states that examined trends in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), and maternal opioid use, the overall NAS incidence increased 300% between 1999 and 2013.   According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a baby is born suffering from opioid withdrawal every 25 minutes.  Newborns that experience opiates in utero may experience NAS and depending on the severity of drug withdrawal, may suffer a number of symptoms as a result.  Generally speaking, the medical focus is short term and primarily focused on getting the infant through withdrawal, and helping the mother accept and follow through on substance misuse and treatment.  Not much attention has been paid to helping the mother understand and learn to care for her baby.  Almost no attention has been paid to other caregivers who may actually care for the babies for extended periods.  Whether they are parents, grandparents, child care providers or Early Head Start teachers they too will need to understand NAS and the accompanying symptoms.

Babies born with NAS are irritable, engage in excessive crying, have trouble with eating and digestion and frequently don’t like to be touched.  This may impact the mother and baby’s ability to bond during those critical first days and weeks.  Most symptoms will diminish as the child gets older, but some symptoms could last for months or longer.  While impacts on cognitive development are unclear, children born with NAS appear to be more likely to have behavioral problems such as poor attention span, hyperactivity and challenges with self-regulation.  They may be very sensitive to light and sound and require environmental modifications.

Findings from those studies that have been done indicate that long term effects are highly dependent on the quality of the caregiving environment, which suggests that the effects can be mitigated with access to appropriate supports.  Although there is more that we don’t know than what we do, one thing is certain, being aware of the problems and potential symptoms can help adults who work with either NAS or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) babies provide the best possible environments and care to help these children develop.

While I have focused here on the NAS challenges, the policy addresses children affected by any substance abuse during pregnancy including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD.)  According to the Institute of Medicine, “of all substances of abuse (including heroin, cocaine, and marijuana) alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral affects in the fetus”.   It should be clear that providing preventive, educational information and services to expectant mothers is a top priority.

I urge everyone, whether you work with AIAN families or not, to read this policy statement and share what you know about programs or training for adults who care for NAS/FASD affected children.  What works, what doesn’t?  Until we know more, we must learn from each other.   Finally, it is vitally important to raise awareness about the effects of substance abuse on both the mothers and their babies.

Look for the Policy Statement on the ACF’s website. It will be posted as soon as possible.

Source: Administration for Children and Families, Early Childhood Development

Create a Culture of Acceptance and Kindness in a Challenging World: It all Starts in Your Early Childhood Program

1/25/2017
2 – 3:30pm ET

Presenter: Jacky Howell

In a time where there seems to be many negative messages in the media and beyond, we in early childhood programs experience the effects on young children.  This webinar will share a variety of ideas and strategies to use in your programs that embrace a culture of acceptance and kindness.

Objectives:

  • Description and examples will be given defining a classroom that embraces a culture of acceptance and kindness.
  • Concrete strategies and ideas will be shared that participants can bring back to use in their settings.
  • Opportunity will be provided for question/answer.

Source: Early Childhood Webinars

Register at: http://www.earlychildhoodwebinars.com/presentations/create-culture-acceptance-kindness-challenging-world-starts-early-childhood-program-jacky-howell/